Private Ponds and Aquatic Management

Private Ponds

Constructing, Stocking and Maintaining Private Ponds

Pond management is more difficult than most people realize. Many enthusiastic beginners believe they can put up a dam, wait for it to fill, throw in some fish, wait a couple of years and then fish happily ever after. As the "veteran" pond owner knows, this is not the case. Proper pond management takes diligence, work, expertise and money.

Pond Construction Tips

  1. Make sure the pond site lends itself to the proper maintenance of a pond. Do not dam up a gully that has a square mile of run-off running through it. We recommend that the watershed acreage be between 10–20 acres for every surface acre of pond. Example: A three-acre pond would have a watershed of 30–60 acres.
  2. Contact the local Natural Resource Conservation Service in your county. They are an invaluable source of information regarding pond construction.
  3. Plant grass waterways and edge around the pond. SOIL EROSION WILL CAUSE A POND TO GO BAD QUICKER THAN ANY ONE FACTOR.
  4. Put a core trench (key) in the dam.
  5. If the pond is larger than 1.5 acres, it would be to your benefit to put a drain in it. Four inches (4") is large enough. This will allow you to draw water out of the pond and will come in handy in future management projects, i.e., rehabilitation.
  6. Keep trees from growing on the dam.
  7. A sediment retention basin or silt trap in the upper end of the pond would be beneficial in keeping soil from filling in your pond.

Pond Construction FAQs

How deep should my pond be?

A minimum depth of at least 7 feet in the southern part of the state to 10 feet in the northern part of Illinois should be maintained in one fourth of the pond. Depths that range from 10 to 15 feet are even more desirable. The water along the shoreline should be 3 feet deep to reduce the growth of shallow water plants.

How big should my pond be?

The ideal pond should be at least 1 acre in size when full. Smaller ponds are difficult to manage for any length of time. Their fish populations tend to be unstable and unpredictable. Excessive aquatic plants can seriously interfere with recreational uses of the pond, and also, can provide too many hiding places for small fish. Summer and winter fish kills occur more frequently in small ponds because they are often shallow. Small ponds can seldom support enough fishing pressure to make management worthwhile. They are likely to dry up or provide marginal habitat during extended period of below average rainfall.

During construction, what can I do to help prevent weeds from taking over my pond?

When ponds are constructed, certain precautions should be taken to help prevent the growth of excessive aquatic vegetation. The pond should be located in a site where drainage does not permit pollutants to reach the pond. The beach areas should be lined with sand blankets, gravel beds or fiberglass mesh mats should be done in an attempt to inhibit or prevent rooted aquatic plant growth. The shoreline edges should be deepened to 3 feet or more at the time of construction. The will help prevent the growth of excessive aquatic vegetation. See below.


Fish Stocking Tips

Ponds in Illinois vary greatly in their fish stocking needs. The owners, managers and users of these ponds also may differ in their sport fishing objectives and require a wide selection of stocking options. Therefore, it is important to discuss pond stocking with a District Fisheries Biologist.

Before the fish stocking decision is made, careful analyses of pond characteristics and angler preferences must be made. Some of the factors affecting the decision include pond type, size, depth, water chemistry, fertility, existing fish population, expected fishing pressure and harvest, and most importantly, what fish do the anglers want?

The most widely used and successful stocking combination for ponds in Illinois is largemouth bass, channel catfish, bluegill and redear sunfish. These species are popular among fishermen, and are biologically adapted to a wide variety of pond conditions. These species effectively utilize natural and artificial foods, and are compatible with many other species that might be stocked later. The concept of this stocking combination is that the bluegill eat small aquatic insects and in turn serve as food for bass. The bass control the numbers of small fish so that those remaining grow to large size.

One of the most important points in producing a viable sportfish population is to stock the pond correctly initially.
Follow these tips:

  1. Do not go to another lake or river, catch some fish and stock them into your pond.
  2. If possible, do not allow anyone to put fish into your pond at anytime.
  3. In central Illinois, pond should be stocked with 500-700 bluegill per surface acre, 0-300 redear sunfish per acre, 100 largemouth bass and 100 channel catfish per acre. These fish should be fingerlings. Do not stock adult fish (see 2 and 3).
  4. Every other year, thereafter, stock 15-30 8-10" channel catfish per acre.
  5. There is no need to stock any other fish, assuming you are properly managing your pond.
  6. Do not stock carp, bullheads, crappie, hybrid sunfish, green sunfish, trout, walleye, extra bass, fathead minnows, etc. in your pond. You are trying to establish a balanced predator-prey population between bass and bluegill. Any other species introduced could negatively affect this balance.
  7. Always be aware of aquatic invasive species and be very careful not to stock any of these plants or animals into your pond. Before purchasing fish or plants for your aquarium, backyard pond, or water garden, make sure it is legal to purchase or possess your desired species.Under Illinois state law, it is illegal to purchase or possess "injurious species" (common names found here) without a permit from the Illinois Department of Natural Resources.


Fish Stocking FAQs

What kind of fish can I stock?

Most Illinois ponds provide habitat that is suited for "warm water" fish. The warm water fish species that are stocked with success are the largemouth bass, bluegill, redear and channel catfish. The stocking of "cool and "cold water" fish as an addition to the basic fish stocking, under the proper conditions and timing, also produces good fishing.

Can I stock crappies in my pond?

Crappies, though popular, are not generally suitable for stocking in small lakes and ponds. Crappies are prolific spawners and produce large numbers of offspring which can quickly overpopulate. High numbers of bass, which results in slow growth rates, must be maintained to provide desired rates of predation on crappie.

Won't bluegill become stunted and overpopulate my pond if I stock them?

Some pond owners are reluctant to stock bluegill because of their reputation for overpopulating. The cause for most bluegill problems is traceable to overharvest of largemouth bass and/or to the overharvest of large bluegill. Redear sunfish, in limited situations are substituted for the bluegill. In most cases, they are generally stocked in combination with the bluegill at a ratio of 70 percent bluegill to 30 percent redear. The redear is a southern species and generally doesn't survive the winter, north of Interstate 80. Bass and bluegill are sometimes stocked alone if redear and channel catfish are not desired.

How big should the fish stocked be?

Fingerling fish (1 to 3 inches) are recommended for the initial stocking of new or rehabilitated ponds. It is essential that no fish life exists in the pond before the initial stocking. The single exception is to stock breeder- sized fathead minnows, which will create an abundant food supply that will eventually be eliminated by bass. Fathead minnows are available from private fish dealers. Other minnow species can cause problems.

The largemouth bass in my pond are skinny. Can I improve their condition by stocking minnows?

The IDNR fisheries biologists recommend stocking fathead minnows at a rate of approximately two pounds per surface acre to supplement forage in new ponds prior to sport fish stocking. These minnows will spawn and produce thousands of young which are great growth boosters for young sport fish. However, stocking fathead minnows into ponds with existing predator populations is much less productive, since most minnows are eaten before they can produce offspring, and it takes five to six pounds of minnows to produce one pound of bass weight gain.

Alkalinity
Fertility Rating
Fertility Key
Approximate Carrying Capacity
LM Bass Lbs/Acre
Approximate Carrying Capacity
Bluegill Lbs/Acre
More than 100 PPM (parts per million)
Good
 
100
400
50 to 100 PPM
Average
 
50
200
Less than 50 PPM
Fair
 
25
75

Number of Fingerling Fish Stocked per Surface Acre

Soil Type of Pond
Black
Light
Forest
Black
Light
Forest
Black
Light
Forest
Largemouth Bass
100
80
60
90
70
50
80
60
40
Channel Catfish
100
80
60
90
70
50
60
60
40
Bluegill
1000
700
500
800
600
400
700
500
300

 

Bluegill/Redear Combination

Soil Type of Pond
Black
Light
Forest
Black
Light
Forest
Black
Light
Forest
Bluegill
700
560
490
490
420
350
350
310
245
Redear
300
240
210
210
180
150
150
140
105

The above pond stocking guide is based on the utilization of natural food and does not consider artificial feeding which can potentially increase the stocking rates. By initially stocking the correct numbers of fingerlings, a pond or lake will produce sport fishing in less time than by releasing smaller numbers of adult fish. Stocking a few adult fish in a new pond results in an excessive first spawn and stunted fish. If properly managed, bass, bluegill and redear need only an initial stocking as their natural spawning success is adequate to maintain sufficient numbers. Channel catfish do not normally maintain a population by natural reproduction in ponds in the presence of bass and bluegill. Therefore, supplemental stocking of 8 inch or larger channel catfish must be completed to sustain a fishable population.

After the initial stocking, there are numerous other fish stocking situations that can be used to develop or maintain a sport fishery. However, these more complex stocking options should only be pursued under the supervision of a fisheries biologist.


Sources of Fish Stocking

There are several local, statewide and regional sources of fish for stocking ponds. Most local county soil and water districts sell a variety of fish species. Also, there are numerous private fish dealers and hatcheries throughout the Midwest that supply and deliver live fish. Here is a listing: Fish Dealers


Feeding Fish

Feeding is not recommended as a normal procedure in pond management. Caution must be exercised not to use too much food. Too much unused food in a pond may cause a fish kill due to the decomposition process. However, if you insist on feeding your fish, several animal food manufacturers offer fish food pellets for sale. These foods are used most successfully in trout and catfish culture. However, pelleted fish food can also be used by the pond owner to feed bluegill. Bluegill do not usually concentrate in one place to feed; therefore, the pelleted food would have to be scattered in the shallow water areas or placed on floating feeders around the entire pond. Pelleted fish food can be fed at the rate of 2 pounds per acre per feeding. Once the fish begin taking the food, the amount can be increased, not exceeding 10 pounds per acre per day. The best guide in feeding fish is to use no more than they consume in 15–20 minutes. Feeding bluegill may result in larger and fatter fish, but not necessarily better fishing. Bass do not take pelleted food very readily unless they learn to do so when very young (2 inches).


Fishing Your Pond FAQs

When can I start to fish my pond after it has been stocked with fingerlings?

It is a good idea to allow the fish two complete years for growth before any harvest. In the second year following the bass stocking, sometime between May and July, the bass spawn for their first time. Bass do not reproduce until they are two years old. Initial panfish harvest is permissible by mid-July of the second year following the bass stocking. Remember that channel catfish do not usually reproduce in ponds so harvest should keep pace with restocking plans. Bass harvest is permissible in mid-July of the third year following their introduction, usually when they are 15 inches or larger.

How many fish should I harvest?

Everyone likes to catch bass, but removing too manyof them seriously jeopardizes the future of quality fishing. The average Illinois pond supports about four times as many pounds of bluegill and redear sunfish as it does bass. Therefore, much more effort, perhaps 20 times as much, should be directed toward catching bluegill than toward bass. The following recommendations are provided as guidelines for maximum angling harvest per year for a typical one acre pond:

Species of Fish
Largemouth Bass
Bluegill and/or Redear Sunfish
Carrying Capacity of Pond (Pounds per acre)
25
50
100
75
200
400
Angler Harvest: (per acre)
1st Year Max. Number
None
None
None
None
None
None
1st Year Max. Pounds
None
None
None
None
None
None
2nd Year Max. Number
Catch & Release
Catch & Release
Catch & Release
120*
320*
640*
2nd Year Max. Pounds
Catch & Release
Catch & Release
Catch & Release
30
80
160
3rd Year Max. Number
10
20
40
120*
320*
640*
3rd Year Max. Pounds
10
20
40
30
80
160
Each Succeeding Year
Max. Number
10 **
20 **
49 **
120*
320*
640*
Each Succeeding Year
Max. Pounds
10
20
40
20
80
160

* 6 inches and larger
** After quota is reached all bass over 18 inches can be harvested.


Fish Population Management Tips

  1. Put a 15" length limit on largemouth bass, especially for the first three years. Any caught smaller than that should be released.
  2. This limit may be lifted after the initial phase, depending on the bass/sunfish population structure.
  3. Bluegill/redear (sunfish) should be harvested at the rate of 50–70 lbs/acre/year after the second year, depending on the productivity of the lake.
  4. Bass should be harvested at the rate of 20–30 lbs/acre/year after the third year. That same figure could be used for channel catfish as well.
  5. If bluegill are stunted in your pond, they need to be drastically "thinned" out. Harvesting by hook and line generally will not reduce their numbers significantly. You will need to consult the fisheries biologist who can recommend possible solutions.


Removing Undesirable Fish

Undesirable fish,such as carp and bullheads, can be removed by two methods: draining and chemical treatment. If the pond can be completely drained, the pond bottom should be left dry for several weeks. If any water is left after draining, it should be treated with a fish toxicant to assure a complete fish kill. In order to use aquatic pesticides, such a rotenone, a Permit to Remove Undesirable Fish must be obtained from the Department of Natural Resources' Division of Fisheries. Aquatic pesticides are listed by the USEPA as "Restricted Use Pesticides", they can only be received and possessed by a Division of Fisheries biologist. Treatment of water areas with fish toxicants must be done by one of these biologists per Illinois Administrative Rule 890. The permit to Remove Undesirable Fish and a detailed explanation of Rule 890 can be obtained from the IDNR fisheries biologist.

Emulsifiable rotenone is very effective for the reduction or eradication of undesirable fish populations. The chemical inhibits a biochemical process at the cellular level making it impossible for the fish to use oxygen in the release of energy needed for body processes. The fish cannot be revived by transferring them to untreated water. Rotenone affects all species of fish, although susceptibility to the chemical varies between species. Emulsifiable rotenone, 5 percent or 2.5 percent synergized, is generally used at a minimum concentration of 3 parts per million (1.0 gallon per acre foot). A stronger concentration may be required in waters that are very alkaline and highly turbid, caused by either algae or silt. Swimming can take place in waters treated with rotenone following completion of the application of the rotenone.


Fish Kill

Many things can cause the death of fish in ponds, and once the fish are dying, it is usually too late to stop the kill. However, many fish kills can be anticipated, and measures can be taken to prevent them.

Winter Kill

During winter, the oxygen supply under the ice depends upon the passage of light and the production of oxygen by tiny plants in the water. If snow covers the ice, sunlight cannot penetrate and the plants are unable to produce oxygen. The supply of oxygen is gradually used up by decay processes and by the respiration of fishes and other aquatic animals. If the snow remains on the ice long enough, oxygen is depleted and the fish suffocate. Dead fish are usually found in the spring after the ice melts. However, if the kill occurs early in the winter, there may be few, if any, dead fish observed when the pond opens in the spring.

Winter kill is most likely to occur in fertile, shallow, weed-filled ponds. To prevent winter kills, deepening the pond, and removing fertile organic matter will help. Removing the snow cover from the ice will permit light to penetrate to the underlying plants. Making holes in the ice will not help. Artificial aeration can help fish survive and prevent oxygen depletion. Compressed air systems should be utilized in depths which exceed eight feet.

Summer Kill (Aquatic Plant Die-Off)

Ponds that contain an abundance of submersed aquatic plants or algae sometimes have a fish kill when these plants die suddenly from natural causes or from herbicides. Aquatic plants frequently die during midsummer and use up the oxygen in the water as they decay and fish suffocate as a result. This type of summer kill almost always occurs about sunrise when the dissolved oxygen is at its low point for the day. Natural die-offs of phytoplankton (algae) blooms are a common cause of summer kill. On rare occasions fish may die or be in distress in mid-afternoon because of increased pH of water, supersaturation of oxygen (gas bubble disease), or toxic algae blooms.

To prevent a summer kill, control of the rooted aquatic vegetation and algae so that they never become dense is recommended. If the stand is dense, treat only a part of it at any one time and allow that part of the vegetation to decay before further treatment. Artificial aeration can help fish survive and prevent oxygen depletion. Compressed air systems should be used in depths that exceed eight feet. In lakes and ponds where depths do not exceed eight feet, blower systems are more efficient.

Summer Kill (Temperature)

Water temperatures in shallow ponds can reach 90 to 95 degrees during hot summer months. Water holds very little oxygen when its temperature is above 90 degrees F. On days with little breeze, little or no oxygen is added to the water, and the dissolved oxygen may disappear entirely just before dawn, and as a result, fish would die from suffocation.

To prevent this kind of summer kill, ponds should be deepened so that 25 percent of the area is 7 to 10 feet deep or deeper. Artificial aeration can also help fish survive and prevent oxygen depletion. Compressed air systems should be used in depths that exceed eight feet. In lakes and ponds where depths do not exceed eight feet, blower systems are more efficient.

Organic Pollution

Barnyard, feedlot, silo, and sewage drainage that consumes oxygen as it decays can quickly deplete the oxygen in a pond and cause fish to die from suffocation. Many times these kills are noticed after a rain when organic pollution has washed into the pond.

To prevent fish kills from organic pollution, organic wastes need to be kept from entering ponds by the use of proper livestock confinement practices and appropriate agricultural practices.

Pesticides

Farm crops on the watersheds of ponds are often sprayed with pesticides. Rain may wash this material into the pond and readily cause a fish kill from exposure to the chemicals.

To prevent such a kill, caution should be exercised in the selection and application of pesticides and in the timing of treatment. Also, application equipment should not be spray washed in or near ponds.

Natural Mortality

In the spring, a few large fish may be found dead along the shoreline. Such mortalities are often the result of natural causes. The natural resistance of fish to disease is lower in the early spring than at any other time of the year. Larger fish often seem to be more susceptible to disease than smaller fish.

Industrial and Mining Wastes

Many industrial wastes are toxic to fish. Other industrial wastes are organic, consuming dissolved oxygen and killing fish by oxygen depletion. Mining wastes kill fish by the direct effects of acids and sulphur compounds.

To prevent such kills, wastes from mines and industrial plants should be kept from entering ponds.


Aquatic Plant Management

I have excessive weed growth weed growth in my pond and don't know how to control it. Can I obtain assistance from IDNR?

Excessive vegetation in a pond can be managed through chemical, biological, or physical means or some combination of these measures. The first step toward prudent vegetation management includes identification of aquatic plants. Once plants are identified, an appropriate approach for control can be formulated. Contact you local IDNR district fisheries biologist for literature and advice. Also see the Aquatic Plants download below.

My pond has an algae problem, can I stock grass carp to control this?

Grass carp aren't generally stocked for algae control. They will tend to only eat fillamentous algae if there is nothing else better available to them. In so doing, the body of water would convert itself to planktonic algae, which is worse. Our own fish hatchery, Jake Wolf, got rid of the grass carp they had for just that reason. They were making water quality problems that hurt the young fish and clogged the filters.

Below are the pros and cons of using grass carp:

Pros

  • Grass carp are inexpensive. Generally between 4 and 10 per acre should be stocked depending on the species and abundance of the vegetation. They are $8.00/fish and will live approximately 10 years.
  • They can be effective, given the right circumstances, (i.e., weed type and size and depth of pond.)
  • They are a more "natural" control. You will not be adding chemicals to the pond ecosystem.

Cons

  • They get very big. Fish four feet long are not uncommon.
  • If overstocked, they can destroy all aquatic vegetation in the pond. This can have negative effects on the bass/sunfish balance.
  • They have food preferences. Filamentous algae (pond scum) is to grass carp what brussel sprouts are to us. Do not plan to control filamentous algae with grass carp. It probably will not work. They will have to eat all the other vegetation before they will begin feeding on the scum. This could hurt your fishery (see above).
  • Once they are in your pond, there is little control over them. Do not plan on taking them out if you see that they are causing a problem. There is almost no way of catching them. They are there to stay.
  • Depending on the productivity of your pond, you may see an increase in one kind of vegetation as you see a decrease in another. Example: The underwater vegetation may begin to decrease due to grass carp feeding, however, there may be an increase in filamentous or plankton algae.
  • You will see little, if any, control for the first couple of years. In the third year, you should be able to tell if it is working. If you do not see the desired results, add another 50% of your original stocking. About every 8-10 years, you will need to add about 50% of your original stocking as well. Example: You have a 2 acre pond that is approximately 50% covered with underwater vegetation. You should stock 6-7 grass carp/acre, or 12-14 fish. If, after two years, you see no results, add another 6-7 fish. About 8-10 years from the original stocking, you may add another 6-7.

Can vegetation be controlled using chemical treatments?

  • For underwater vegetation you will need to gather a sample, put it in a Ziploc bag and mail it to the district fisheries biologist. Send an accompanying letter with your name, address, telephone number and map of the pond showing where the vegetation is. The biologist will contact you and tell you what the weed is and how to treat it.
  • For filamentous algae control, use 2.5-5.0 lbs. of copper sulfate (fine powder) per surface acre. Mix a small amount at a time in a plastic 5 gallon bucket. Slowly motor around your pond pouring the mixture into the propeller wash. This will give you a good dispersal. Or, 1 gallon of a liquid copper sulfate/acre such as Cutrine, Pond Master or Cleargate mixed with 30 gallons of water and sprayed on the algae. You will probably have to treat the pond 4–5 times per summer, depending on the pond's fertility. The only time you should not treat is during the spawn, usually the last two weeks of May and the first week of June. It is important to get ahead of the problem and stay ahead of it.

Attention Private Lake and Pond Owners

New NPDES Permit Requirements for Pesticide Application to Ponds and Lakes

Due to a new court ruling with regard to the National Pesticide Discharge Elimination System, changes have been made in the pesticide permitting requirements. The court stated that an NPDES permit is required when pesticides are applied to, over or near waters of the US. This ruling applies to all private water owners, with dammed ponds or lakes having outflow to waters of the State. If the pond owner intends to treat ponds with outflows for algae and/or aquatic vegetation, they must fill out and submit a Notice of Intent (NOI) to the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency to receive coverage under the General Pesticide NPDES Permit. The Notice of Intent form must be completed and submitted electronically to the IEPA at least 14 days prior to pesticide application, although paper forms will be accepted. The NOI will be posted on the Agency's website for 14 days. If the applicant does not receive a Notice of Incompleteness within 30 days from the date the IEPA received the NOI, the applicant can assume approval and may treat the area(s) requested on the NOI. If the permit coverage letter comes before the 30 day period, the applicant can apply pesticides as of the date on the letter. There is an annual Threshold Level of 80 acres. If over 80 acres of water is treated in one year, a Pesticide Discharge Management Plan (PDMP) is required in addition to the Notice of Intent. Please note: borrow pits, strip mines and quarries do not need any permit at all if there is no overflow.

The Notice of Intent form and directions for filling it out and, if necessary, instruction for filling out the PDMP can found at the IEPA web site: http://www.epa.state.il.us/water/permits/pesticide/general-permit.pdf

As part of the Notice of Intent the pond owner must contact the Illinois Department of Natural Resources to check for Threatened and Endangered plant and animal species that may be in the application area (pond or lake). Go to the IDNR EcoCAT website (must be viewed with internet explorer) http://dnr.illinois.gov/EcoPublic/ to determine the presence or absents of those species. If a T&E species is within the application area, the pond owner must go through the consultation process outlined on the website. The pond owner must keep a record of the IDNR approval notification but does not need to provide it to the IEPA. If the water body is an artificial impoundment less than 10 acres it is exempt from Threatened and Endangered Species consultation.

FAQs

When is a NPDES permit needed?

Prior to any pesticide application made directly to, over or near waters of the state.

Who should obtain NPDES permit coverage?

The individual pond owner who will apply the herbicide. If the pond owner hires a contract applicator either the contract applicator or the pond owner could apply for NPDES coverage.

How do I apply for NPDES permit coverage?

File a Notice of Intent (NOI) with the IEPA. The form can be printed from the site listed above. Don't forget the 14 day public notice period and the information regarding the approval and notification process listed above, so plan ahead

What does the permit cost?

Currently there is no fee however fees may be introduced at a later date.

How long is the permit good for?

Five years from the date of issuance but not from the date of coverage.

Is anything else needed besides the permit?

An Adverse Incident Report is needed if there are any adverse impacts related to the application such as spills or accidental overdosing. The incident must be reported to the Illinois Emergency Management Agency immediately and the report must follow within 15 days.

A Pesticide Discharge Management Plan (PDMP) is required if the annual threshold of 80 acres is past and if you do not meet any of the additional exemptions within the permit. The threshold is determined not only by the size of the pond or lake but by the number of treatments. For example, if a 10 acre pond is treated 9 times with different herbicides within a one-year period, it would be counted as 90 treatment acres and the 80 acre threshold limit would have been passed. This would trigger the need for a PDMP. If treated with the same herbicide 9 times, the additional treatments would not count toward the threshold.

Additional things to remember

You are allowed to apply only a pesticide that is labeled for aquatic use. The General NPDES permit only applies to pesticide applications that will be made directly to or over waters of the State or at water's edge. Pesticide applications to dry ditches which discharge into waters of the State may also require General NPDES permit coverage.

You must file an updated NOI to modify your NPDES permit coverage to add additional use patterns or treatment areas at least 14 days prior to beginning the pesticide applications. The General NPDES permit coverage is good for 5 years from the issuance date on the permit.

Contact the IDNR for Threatened and Endangered Species to find out if consultation is required, if the water body is 10 acres or over and has an overflow into a water of the state. The IDNR EcoCAT website is listed above.

Contact your local IDNR District Fisheries Biologist for more information about the correct herbicide to use, when and how to apply, how much and where to purchase.